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Taking Care Of Your Domain

1. Introduction

Today  more than 2,200,000  computers are inter-connected  in a global  Internet,  comprising  several  millions  of end-users, able to reach any of those hosts just by naming it. This facility is  possible thanks to the world widest distributed database, the Domain Name System, used to provide distributed applications  various  services, the  most  notable one being translating names into IP addresses and vice-versa.  This happens when you do an ftp or  telnet,  when  your gopher  client  follows a link to some remote server, when you click on a hypertext item and have to reach  a server as  defined  by  the URL,  when  you talk to someuser@some.host, when your mail has to be routed through a set of gateways  before it reaches the final  recipient, when you post an article to Usenet and want it propagated all over the world. While these may be the most visible uses of  DNS,  a lot  more  applications rely on this system to operate, e.g. network security, monitoring and accounting tools, just to mention a few.

DNS owes much of its success to its distributed administration. Each component  (called  a  zone, the same as a domain in most cases), is seen as an independent entity, being responsible  for  what  happens inside its domain of authority, how and what information changes and for letting the tree grow  downwards, creating  new  components.  On the  other  side,  many  inconsistencies arise from this distributed nature: many administrators make mistakes in the way they  configure their  domains and when they delegate authority to sub-domains; many of them don't even know how to do these properly,  letting  problems last and propagate.  Also, many problems occur  due to bad implementations of both DNS clients and servers, especially very  old  ones, either  by  not  following  the  standards  or by being error prone, creating or allowing many of the above problems to happen.

All these anomalies make DNS less efficient than it could be,  causing  trouble  to  network  operations,  thus  affecting  the overall Internet.  This document tries to show how important it is  to  have DNS  properly  managed,  including  what is already in place to help administrators taking better care of their domains.

2.  DNS Debugging

To help finding problems in DNS  configurations  and/or  implementations  there is a set of  tools developed specifically for this purpose.  There is probably  a  lot  of  people  in  charge  of  domain administration  having no idea of these tools (and, worse, not aware of the anomalies that  may exist in   their   configurations).  What follows   is  a  description of some of these programs, their scope, motivations and availability, and is hoped to serve as an  introduction  to  the  subject of DNS debugging, as well as a guide to those who are looking for something to help them finding out  how  healthy their domains and servers are.

Some prior knowledge from the reader is assumed, both on DNS  basics and some other tools (e.g. dig and nslookup), which are not analysed in detail here; hopefully they  are  well-known  enough  from  daily usage.

2.1.  Host

Host is a program used to retrieve DNS information from nameservers. This  information   may  be  used simply  to get simple  things like address-to-name  mapping, or some    more  advanced  purposes,  e.g. performing  sanity  checks  on  the data.  It was created at Rutgers University, but then Eric Wassenaar from Nikhef did a major  rewrite and  still   seems  to  be  actively working on  it.  The program is available from ftp.nikhef.nl:/pub/network/host_YYMMDD.tar.Z  (YYMMDD is the date of the latest release).

By default, host just maps host names to Internet addresses,  querying  the  default  servers  (as defined in /etc/resolv.conf) or some specific one. It is possible,  though,  to  get  any  kind  of  data (resource  records)  by specifying different query types and classes and asking for verbose or debugging  output,  from  any  nameserver. You can also control several parameters like recursion, retry times, timeouts, use of virtual circuits vs. datagrams, etc., when  talking to nameservers.  This way you can simulate a resolvers behavior, in order to find  any  problems  associated  with  resolver  operations (which  is to say, any application using the resolver library). As a query program it may not be as powerful as others like  nslookup  or dig, but you can live with it perfectly well.

As a debugger, host analyzes some set of  the  DNS  space  (e.g.  an entire zone) and produces reports with the results of its operation. To do this, host first performs a zone transfer, which may be recursive,  getting  information  from a zone and all its sub-zones. This data is then analyzed as requested by the  arguments  given  on  the command line.   Note that zone transfers  are done by  contacting authoritative nameservers for that zone, so it must be  possible  to make  this  kind  of  request from such servers: some of them refuse zone transfers (except from secondaries) to avoid congestion.

With host you may look for anomalies like those concerning authority (e.g.  lame  delegations, described below) or some more exotic cases like extrazone hosts (a host of the form  host.some.dom.ain,  where some.dom.ain  is  not a delegated zone of dom.ain). These errors are produced upon explicit request on the command line, but you may  get a variety of other  error messages as a result of host's operations, something like secondary effects. These may be mere warnings  (which may  be suppressed) or serious errors (in fact, warning messages are not that simple, most of them are due to misconfigured zones, so  it might not be a good idea to just ignore them).

Error messages have to do with serious  anomalies, either  with  the packets  exchanged  with  the queried servers (size errors,  invalid ancounts,  nscounts and the  like), or others  related  to  the  DNS information  itself  (also called "status messages" in the program's man page): inconsistencies between SOA  records as   shown  by  different  servers  for  a domain, unexpected address-to-name mappings, nameservers not responding, not reachable, not running or not existing at all, and so on.

Host performs all its querying on-line, i.e.,  it  only  works  with data  received  from  nameservers,  which  means you have to query a nameserver more than once if you want  to  get  different kinds  of reports  on  some  particular  piece of data. You can always arrange arguments in such a way that you get all  information  you  want  by running  it once, but if you forget something or for any reason have to run it again, this means extra  zone transfers,  extra  load  on nameservers, extra DNS traffic.

Host is an excellent tool,  if  used  carefully.  Like  most   other querying programs it may generate lots of traffic, just by issuing a simple command. Apart from that, its  resolver simulation and  debug capabilities make it useful to find many common and some not so common DNS configuration  errors, as well as  generate  useful  reports and  statistics  about  the DNS tree.  As an example, RIPE  (Reseaux IP Europeens) NCC uses it to generate a  monthly european hostcount, giving an overview of the Internet usage evolution in Europe.  Along with these counts, error reports are generated, one per country, and the whole information is made available in the RIPE archive.

2.2.  Dnswalk

Dnswalk is  a DNS debugger  written in Perl  by   David  Barr,  from Pennsylvania  State  University.   You'll find the latest version at ftp.pop.psu.edu, in directory /pub/src/dnswalk.  With  the  software comes  a  small document where the author points some useful advices so it may be worth reading it.

The program checks domain configurations stored  locally.   Data  is arranged  hierarchically   in  directories, resembling the DNS  tree organization of domains. To set  up  this  information  dnswalk may first perform zone transfers from authoritative nameservers.

You can have a recursive transfer of a domain and  its  sub-domains,  though you  should  take  care when doing this, as it may  generate a great amount of traffic. If the data is already present, dnswalk  may skip these transfers, provided that it is up to date.

Dnswalk looks for  inconsistencies in RRs, such as  MX  and  aliases pointing to aliases or to unknwon hosts, incoherent PTR, A and CNAME records, invalid  characters  in  names,   missing   trailing  dots, unnecessary  glue information, and so on. It also does some checking on authority information, namely lame delegations and  domains  with only one nameserver. It is easy to use, you only have to specify the domain to analyze and some optional parameters and the program  does the  rest. Only one domain (and its sub-domains, if that's the case) can be checked at a time, though.

While in the process of checking data, dnswalk uses dig and resolver routines  (gethostbyXXXX  from  the Perl library) a lot, to get such data as authority information from  the  servers  of   the  analyzed domains,  names  from  IP addresses so as to verify the existence of PTR records, aliases and so on. So, besides the zone  transfers  you may  count  on  some more extra traffic (maybe not negligible if you are debugging a relatively large amount  of  data  and   care  about query retries and timeouts), just by running the program.

As of this writing, the program's operation is somewhat  constrained by  dig's  behavior  and the author  is working hard on "un-dig'ing" it, using just Perl routines. It may be  worthwhile  upgrading  your version if the new, dig-free dnswalk is available.

2.3.  Lamers

A lame delegation is a serious error in DNS  configurations,  yet  a (too)  common one.  It happens when a nameserver is listed in the NS records for some domain, and  in fact it is not a  server  for  that domain.  Queries  are thus sent to the wrong servers, who don't know nothing (at least  not  as  expected)  about  the   queried  domain.

Furthermore,  sometimes the hosts in question (if they exist!) don't even run nameservers. As a result, queries are timed out and resent, only  to  fail,  thus   creating (more) unnecessary  traffic on  the Internet.

It's easy to create a lame delegation: the most common case  happens when  an  administrator changes the NS list for his domain, dropping one or more servers from that list,  without  informing  his  parent domain  administration,  who delegate him authority over his domain.

From now on the parent nameserver announces one or more servers  for the domain, which will receive queries for something they don't know about.  On the other hand, servers may be added to the list  without the  parent's servers knowing, thus hiding valuable information from them (this is not a lame delegation, but is also an  error).   Other examples  are  the inclusion of a name in an NS list without telling the administrator of that  host  that  it's  being  announced  as  a nameserver  for  a  domain  it  doesn't know about, or when a server suddenly stops providing name service for the domain.

To detect and warn DNS administrators all over the world about  this problem,  Bryan  Beecher from University of Michigan wrote lamers, a program to analyze named's  logging information [BEE92].

To produce useful  logs,  named  was  applied a patch to detect  (and log) lame delegations (this patch was originally written by  Don   Lewis  from Silicon Systems and is now part of the latest, experimental, release of BIND thanks to Bryan Beecher,  so it is  expected  to  be  widely available  in  the near future). Lamers is a small shell script that simply scans these logs  and reports on the lame delegations  found. This  reporting  is  done  by  sending  mail  to  the hostmasters of affected domains, as stated in the SOA record for each of  them.  If this   is  not  possible,  the  message  is  sent  to  the  affected nameservers postmasters instead. Manual processing is needed in case of  bounces,  caused  by  careless setup of those records or invalid postmaster addresses. A report of the errors found by the UM servers is   also   posted   twice   a   month   on   the  USENET  newsgroup comp.protocols.tcp-ip.domains.

If you ever receive such a report, you should study it carefully  in order  to  find and correct problems in your domain,  or see if your hosts are being affected by the spreading of erroneous  information. Better  yet, lamers could be run on your servers to detect more lame delegations (UM can't see them all!). Also if  you  receive  a  mail reporting  a  lame  delegation affecting your domain or some of your hosts, don't  just ignore it or flame the  senders.  They're  really trying to help!

You can get lamers from terminator.cc.umich.edu:/dns/lamers.sh.

2.4.  DOC

Authority information is one of the most significant part of the DNS data, as the whole mechanism depends on it to correctly traverse the domain tree. Incorrect authority information leads to problems  such as  lame  delegations or even, in extreme cases, the inaccessibility of a domain. Take the case where the information given about all its nameservers  is incorrect.  Being unable to contact the real servers you will end up being unable to reach anything inside  that  domain.

This  may  be  exagerated,  but  if  you're on the DNS business long enough you've probably have seen some  lightened  examples of this scenario.

To look for this kind of problems Paul Mockapetris and  Steve  Hotz, from  the  Information  Sciences   Institute, University of Southern California, wrote  a C-shell script   named  DOC  (Domain  Obscenity Control),  an  automated  domain testing tool that uses dig to query the appropriate nameservers and analyzes the responses.

DOC limits  its analisys   to  authority  data   since  the  authors antecipated  that  people  would complain about such things as invasions of privacy.  Also, at the time it was  written   most  domains were  so  messy  that  they  thought there wouldn't be much point in checking anything deeper until the basic problems weren't fixed.

Only one domain is analyzed each time: the program checks if all the servers for the parent domain agree about the delegation information for the domain in question. DOC then picks a list of nameservers for the  domain  (obtained  from one of the parent's servers) and starts the checking on its information, querying each of  them:  looks  for the  SOA  record,  checks if the response is authoritative, compares the various records retrieved, gets each  one's list of NS, compares the  lists  (both among these servers and the parent's servers), and for those servers inside  the  domain  the  program  looks  for  PTR records for them.

Due to several factors, DOC seems to have freezed  since  its  first public  release,  back  in 1990. Within the distribution there is an RFC draft about automated domain testing, which was never published. Nevertheless,  it  may  provide useful reading.  The software can be fetched from ftp.uu.net:/networking/ip/dns/doc.2.0.tar.Z.

2.5.  DDT

DDT  (Domain Debug Tools)  is a package of   programs  to  scan  DNS information  for error detection, developed originally by Jorge Frazao from PUUG - Portuguese UNIX Users Group and later  rewritten  by the  author, at the time at the Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon. Each program is specialized in a given set of anomalies: you have  a  checker  for  authority information, another for glue data, mail exchangers, reverse-mappings and miscellaneous errors found  in all  kinds  of resource records. As a whole, they do a rather extensive checking on DNS configurations.

These tools work on cached DNS data, i.e., data stored locally after performing  zone  transfers  (done by a slightly modified version of BIND's  named-xfer,  called   ddt-xfer,   which   allows   recursive transfers)  from  the  appropriate  servers,  rather  than  querying nameservers on-line each time they  run. This  option was taken  for several  reasons [FRA92]: (1)  efficiency,  since it reads data from disk, avoiding network transit delays, (2) reduced network  traffic, data  has  to be fetched only once and then run the programs over it as many times as you wish and (3) accessibility - in countries  with limited Internet access, as was the case in Portugal by the time DDT was in its first stages, this may be the only practical way  to  use the tools.

Point (2) above deserves some special considerations: first,  it  is not  entirely  true  that there aren't additional queries while processing the information, one of the tools,  the  authority  checker, queries  (via dig)  each domain's purported  nameservers in order to test the consistency of  the   authority  information  they  provide about  the  domain.  Second,  it  may be argued that when the actual tests are done the information used may be out of date.  While  this is  true, you should note that this is the DNS nature, if you obtain some piece of information you can't be sure that one second later it is still valid.  Furthermore, if your source was not the primary for the domain then you can't even be sure of the validity in the  exact moment  you  got it in the first place. But experience shows that if you see an error, it is likely to be there in the  next  version  of the  domain information (and if it isn't, nothing was lost by having detected it in the past).  On the other side, of course there's little point in checking one month old data...

When building a cache to analyze, you should be careful  in  getting all  the   relevant  data,  which  includes both  normal  domain and reverse-mapping information, or else you get lots of "no PTR  record found"  messages.  This  means  that  using DDT  requires some prior planning, so that all the necessary data  is  available,  since  the tools don't go out looking  for more information, with the exception of authority one (see above). Once again,  care should be taken when doing  recursive  transfers   in  order not to generate  unnecessary traffic. If a host performs nameservice for some domains DDT can use the zone files already stored locally.

DDT tries to look for all kinds of errors, as known by  the  authors at  the time of writing it. The list includes lame delegations, version number mismatches between servers  (this  may  be  a  transient problem),  non-existing  servers,  domains  with  only  one  server, unnecessary glue information, MX records pointing to  hosts  not  in the  analyzed domain (may not be an error, it's just to point possibly strange or expensive mail-routing policies),  MX records  pointing  to aliases, A records without the respective PTR and vice-versa (may not be an error, see the  paragraph  above),  missing  trailing dots  in  configuration  files,  hostnames with no  data (A or CNAME records) associated, aliases pointing to  aliases,  and  some  more.

Given  the  specialized  nature of each tool, it is possible to look for a well defined  set  of  errors,  instead  of  having  the  data analyzed  in  all  possible  ways. Within the package comes a set of small programs that perform  several  kinds  of  statistics  on  the cached data. Among these you have hosts per domain, nets per domain, aliases in a domain, most popular names, etc.

Except for ddt-xfer, all the programs are written  in  Perl.  A  new release  may  come into existence in a near future, after a thorough review of the methods used, the set of errors checked for  and  some bug  fixing,  of  course.  In  the  mean time, the latest version is available from ns.dns.pt:/pub/dns/ddt-2.0.tar.gz.

2.6.  The Checker Project

The problem of the huge amount of DNS traffic over the  Internet  is getting  researchers  close  attention  for  quite some time, mainly because most of it is unnecessary. Observations have shown that  DNS consumes something like twenty times  more bandwidth than  it should [DAN92a]. Some causes for this undoubtedly catastrophic scenario lie on deficient resolver and nameserver implementations spread all over the world, from personal to super-computers, running  all  sorts  of operating systems.

While the panacea is yet to be  found  (claims  are  made  that  the latest  official  version  - 4.9.2 as of this writing - of BIND is a great step forward [KUM93]), work has been done in order to identify sources of anomalies, as a first approach in the  search for a solution. The Checker Project is  one  such  effort,  developed  at  the University of Southern California [MIL94]. It consists of a set of C code patched into BIND's nameserver  named,  which  monitors  server activity,  building  a  database  with the history of that operation (queries and responses).  It is then possible  to  generate  reports from  the  database  summarizing activity and identifying behavioral patterns from client requests, looking for anomalies. The named code alteration  is small and simple unless you want do have PEC checking enabled (see below).  You may find  sources  and   documentation  at caldera.usc.edu,  in directory /pub/checker.

Checker only does this kind of collection and reporting, it does not try to enforce  any  rules  on the administrators of the defective sites by any means whatsoever. Authors hope that the simple  exhibition  of  the evidences is a reason strong enough for those administrators to have their problems corrected.

An interesting feature is PEC (proactive error checking): the server pretends  to  be  unresponsive for some queries by randomly choosing some name and start  refusing replies for  queries on that name during  a pre-determined period. Those queries are recorded, though, to try  to  reason  about  the  retry  and  timeout  schemes  used by nameservers  and  resolvers.   It  is expected  that properly implemented clients will choose another nameserver to query, while defective  ones will keep on trying with the same server. This feature is still being tested as it is not completely clear yet how  to  interpret the results.

Presently Checker has been running on a secondary for the US  domain for  more than a year with little trouble. Authors feel confident it should run on any BSD platform (at least  SunOS)  without  problems, and is planned to be included as part of the BIND nameserver.

Checker is part of a research project lead by Peter Danzig from USC, aimed  to implement probabilistic error checking mechanisms like PEC on distributed systems [DAN92b]. DNS  is  one such  system  and   it was  chosen  as the platform for testing the validity of these techniques over the NSFnet. It is hoped to achieve enough  knowledge  to provide  means to improve performance and reliability of distributed systems.   Anomalies    like  undetected  server   failures,   query loops,  bad retransmission backoff algorithms, misconfigurations and ressubmission of requests after negative replies  are  some  of  the targets for these checkers to detect.

2.7.  Others

All the tools described above are the result of systematic  work  on the  issue  of DNS debugging, some of them included in research projects.  For the sake of completeness we mention here  several  other programs that, though  just as serious, seem to have  been develope in a somewhat ad-hoc fashion, without an implicit intention of being used  outside the environments where they were born. This impression is, of course, arguable, nevertheless we  didn't feel the  necessity of  dedicating  an  entire section to any of them. This doesn't mean they are not valuable contributions, in some cases they may be  just what you are looking for, without having to install a complete package to do some testings on your domain.

We took as a reference the contrib directory in the latest BIND distribution.   There you will find tools  for creating your DNS configuration files and NIS maps from /etc/hosts and vice-versa  or  generate  PTR  from A records (these things may be important as a means of  avoiding common typing errors and inconsistencies between  those tables),  syntax  checkers for zone files, programs for querying and monitoring nameservers, all the short programs presented in [ALB93], and  more.  It   is worth spending some  time looking at them, maybe you'll find that program you were planning to write  yourself.  BIND can be found at gatekeeper.dec.com, in the directory /pub/misc/vixie (the file 4.9.2-940221.tar.gz has the latest public version).

You may also want to consider using a version control  system  (e.g. SCCS or RCS) to maintain your configuration files consistent through updates, or use tools like M4 macros to generate   those  files.  As stated above, it's important to avoid human-generated errors, creating problems that are difficult to track down, since  they're  often hidden  behind  some  mistyped name. Errors like this may  end up in many queries for a  non-existing name,  just  to  mention  the  less serious  kind.  See  [BEE93]  for  a  description of the most common errors made while configuring domains.

3.  Why look after DNS?

We have presented several pieces of software to help people administer  and debug their name services. They exhibit many differences in their way of doing things, scope and requirements and it may be difficult  just  to  choose  one  of them to work  with. For one thing,n people's expectations from these  tools  vary  according   to  their kind  of  envolvement  with  DNS.  If  you are responsible for a big domain, e.g. a top-level one or a big institutions with  many  hosts and  sub-domains,  you  probably  want to see  how well is the  tree below your  node organized, since the consequences of errors tend to propagate upwards, thus affecting your own domain. For that you need some program that recursively descends the domain tree and  analyzes each  domain  per se and the interdependencies between them all. You will have to consider how deep you want your  analysis  to  be,  the effects  it  will  have  on the network infrastructure, i.e. will it generate traffic only inside a campus network, no matter how big  it is, or will it be spread over, say, a whole country (of course, your kind of connectivity plays an important role here).

You may simply want to  perform  some  sanity  checks  on  your own domain, without any further concerns. Or you may want to participate in some kind of global  effort  to  monitor  name  server   traffic, either  for  research  purposes  or  just to point out the "trouble queries" that flow around.

Whatever your interest may be, you can almost surely find a tool  to suit  it. Eliminating problems like those described in this document is a major contribution for the efficiency of an important piece of the  Internet  mechanism. Just  to have an idea of this importance, think of all the applications that depend on it,  not  just  to  get addresses  out of names. Many systems rely on DNS to store, retrieve and spread the information they need: Internet electronic  mail  was already  mentioned (see [PAR86] for details) and work is in progress to integrate, for example, X.400 operations with DNS; others include "remote printing" services [MAL93], distributed file systems [BIR93] and network routing purposes, among others. These  features may be accomplished  by some standard, well-known resource records [ROS93], or by new, experimental ones [EVE90], [MAN93].  Even if some of them won't succeed, one may well expect some more load on the DNS burden.

The ubiquitous DNS thus deserves a great deal of attention,  perhaps much  more than it generally has. One may say that it is a victim of its own success: if a user triggers an excessive amount  of  queries only  to  have  one  request  satisfied, he won't worry about it (in fact, he won't notice it), won't complain to his system  administrator,  and  things  will  just  go  on like this.  Of course, DNS was designed to resist  and  provide  its  services  despite  all  these anomalies.  But,  by doing so it is frequently forgotten, as long as people can telnet or ftp. As DNS will be given new responsibilities, as  pointed  in  the above paragraph, the problems described in this text will grow more serious and new ones may appear  (notably  security  ones  [GAV93]), if nothing is  done to purge them.  We hope to have gain people's attention to this subject, so that  the  Net  can benefit  from  a healthy, properly administered and used Domain Name System.

4. References

[ALB92]
Albitz, P. and C.  Liu.  DNS and BIND.  O'Reilly   and  Associates Inc., Oct. 1992

[BEE92]
Beecher, B. Dealing With Lame Delegations. Univ. Michigan, LISA VI, Oct. 1992

[BEE93]
Beertema, P.  Common DNS  Data File Configuration Errors.  CWI, RFC 1537, Oct. 1993

[BIR93]
Birrel, A. D., A. Hisgen, C. Jerian, T. Mann and G. Swart.  The Echo  Distributed File System. SRC Research Report 111, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sep. 1993

[DAN92a]
Danzig, P. Probabilistic Error  Checkers:  Fixing  DNS.   Univ. Southern California, Technical Report, Feb. 1992

[DAN92b]
Danzig, P., K. Obraczka and  A. Kumar. An Analisys of Wide-Area Name Server Traffic. Univ. Southern California, TR 92-504, 1992

[EVE90]
Everhart, C., L. Mamakos, R. Ullmann and P. Mockapetris  (Ed.). New  DNS  RR  Definitions. Transarc, Univ. Maryland, Prime Computer, Information Sciences Institute, RFC 1183, Oct. 1990

[FRA92]
Frazao, J. and J. L. Martins. Ddt - Domain Debug Tools, A Package  to Debug the DNS Tree. Dept. Informatica da Fac.  Ciencias Univ. Lisboa, DI-FCUL-1992-04, Jan. 1992

[GAV93]
Gavron, E. A Security  Problem  and  Proposed  Correction  With Widely Deployed DNS Software. ACES Research Inc., RFC 1535, Oct 1993

[KUM93]
Kumar, A., J. Postel, C. Neuman, P. Danzig and S. Miller.  Common  DNS  Implementation Errors and Suggested  Fixes.  Information Sciences Institute, Univ. Southern California,  RFC  1536, Oct 1993

[MAL93]
Malamud, C., M. Rose. Principles of Operation  for the  TPC.INT Subdomain: General Principles and Policy. Internet Multicasting Service, Dover Beach Consulting Inc., RFC 1530, Oct. 1993

[MAN92]
Manning, B. DNS NSAP RRs. Rice University, RFC 1348, Jul. 1992

[MIL94]
Miller, S. and P. Danzig. The Checker Project, Installation and Operator's   Manual.   Univ. Southern  California, TR CS94-560, 1994

[PAR86]
Partridge, C. Mail Routing and the Domain System. CSNET CIC BBN Laboratories Inc, RFC 974, Jan. 1986

[ROS93]
Rosenbaum, R.  Using the  Domain Name System to Store Arbitrary String Attributes. Digital Equipment Corporation, RFC 1464, May 1993