RIPE IRT object - Technical HOW TO

Table of contents

Terms Used in This Document

1. How to Create an IRT Object

2. How to Link INET(6)NUM Objects to an IRT Object


Terms Used in This Document

IRT: Incident Response Team - handles security incidents and/or cases of abuse of computer networks or its components.

TI: Trusted Introducer - this service is a trustbroker for IRTs. More information can be found at:

http://www.trusted-introducer.org/


1. How to Create an IRT Object

1.1 Manual creation

1.1.1 Requirements

If you are an IRT and want to create an irt object in the RIPE Database, you need the following:

  • a maintainer for that object. This should be a mntner object in the RIPE Database
  • a key-cert object in the RIPE Database and the appropriate private PGP Key
  • an IP address (range) for which you are responsible as an IRT. This should be in the form of an inet(6)num object in the RIPE Database
  • any other information that is mandatory for an irt object

1.1.2 The Maintainer (MNTNER object)

A maintainer of an object in the RIPE Database is an entity, which can alone make changes to that object. A mntner object represents the maintainer. The maintainer authenticates change requests either by using a PGP-Key or a password as specified in "auth:" attribute.

If you as a team are responsible for a range of IP addresses, there almost certainly will be an inet(6)num object in the database. The maintainer of this object can also maintain your irt object.

The RIPE NCC will not create a mntner object just for maintenance of an irt object.


1.1.3 The PGP Key and The KEY-CERT Object

A PGP key for secure email communication is mandatory for an IRT to create an irt object. Before creating one, you will have to create a key-cert object matching your PGP key in the RIPE Database.

You can create one by sending a completed template by email to auto-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net.

 

Here is an example:

key-cert:     PGPKEY-6DFC4771
method:       PGP
owner:        DFN-CERT (2003), ENCRYPTION Key 
fingerpr:     E8 A7 18 F7 DF 3D 19 64  8D 26 C4 CC BF 2F 0C C4
certif:       -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
certif:       Version: PGP Key Server 0.9.5
certif:
certif:       mQENAz3SIaUAAAEIAKze7wWJ9BDa3iDcQpxZ9+YSVxq+j1prWPsnINMm8GyTMU2H

[...]

certif:       epPs4s0AnjV6ncb6BrbHiU+zeVY8tcW1bopeAJ0VuW0D/+3joueFiL7fDGSV6KPu
certif:       Uw==
certif:       =DKvl
certif:       -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
mnt-by:       TRUSTED-INTRODUCER-MNT
notify:       tiirt _at_ stelvio _dot_ nl
notify:       dfncert _at_ cert.dfn _dot_ de
changed:      gert-henk.bakker _at_ stelvio _dot_ nl 20030813
source:       RIPE

As you can see, you also need a mntner for the key-cert object.

These are the fields of a key-cert object:

key-cert:     [mandatory]   [single]     [primary/lookup key]
method:       [generated]   [single]     [ ]
owner:        [generated]   [multiple]   [ ]
fingerpr:     [generated]   [single]     [ ]
certif:       [mandatory]   [multiple]   [ ]
remarks:      [optional]    [multiple]   [ ]
notify:       [optional]    [multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-by:       [mandatory]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
changed:      [mandatory]   [multiple]   [ ]
source:       [mandatory]   [single]     [ ]

You can use the text above as a template.


1.1.4 The IRT Object

You must submit information about your team to the RIPE NCC before any irt object is created. Some of the data is mandatory. Some fields can have more than one instance. You submit that information by sending a filled out template to the RIPE NCC. These are the fields of an irt object:

irt:           [mandatory]  [single]     [primary/lookup key]
address:       [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
phone:         [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
fax-no:        [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
e-mail:        [mandatory]  [multiple]   [lookup key]
signature:     [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
encryption:    [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
admin-c:       [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
tech-c:        [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
auth:          [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
remarks:       [optional]   [multiple]   [ ]
irt-nfy:       [optional]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
notify:        [optional]   [multiple]   [inverse key]
mnt-by:        [mandatory]  [multiple]   [inverse key]
changed:       [mandatory]  [multiple]   [ ]
source:        [mandatory]  [single]     [ ]

You can use the text above as a template.


1.1.5 The Creation Process

You start the process of creating an irt object by sending a completed template by e-mail to the RIPE NCC. As creation of an irt object is a manual process, you should address your email to ripe-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net.

In your mail, you need to explain why you want to create a new irt object. To prevent misuse of the object, the RIPE NCC will need to check your request, so include a full explanation. A good idea is the listing of the inet(6)num objects you, as an IRT, are responsible for and from which you want to link to from your new irt object.

You will get a reply from the RIPE NCC asking you to acknowledge your request.


1.2 Creation Through the Trusted Introducer (TI) Service

You need to become a TI accredited team. The TI will register and maintain your irt object. Please visit the Trusted Introducer website to find out more at:

http://www.trusted-introducer.org/

 

Here is an example:

This is the body of an example e-mail with which the TI creates object for a newly accredited team:

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA1

irt:        IRT-TCERT
address:    Telia AB, HQ
address:    TeliaCERT
address:    SE-123 86 Farsta
address:    Sweden
phone:      +46 8 713 1872
fax-no:     +46 706 175 101
e-mail:     tcert _at_ telia _dot_ se
signature:  PGPKEY-D47485CF
encryption: PGPKEY-D47485CF
admin-c:    TI123-RIPE
tech-c:     TI123-RIPE
auth:       PGPKEY-D47485CF
remarks:    Emergency telephone number +46 8 713 1872 (GMT+1/GMT+2 with DST)
remarks:    http://www.trusted-introducer.org/teams/tcert.html
remarks:    This is an accredited IRT (level 2)
irt-nfy:    tcert _at_ telia _dot_ se
notify:     tiirt _at_ s-cure _dot_ nl
notify:     tcert _at_ telia _dot_ se
mnt-by:     TRUSTED-INTRODUCER-MNT
changed:    gert-henk.bakker _at_ stelvio _dot_ nl 20030814
source:     RIPE

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: GnuPG v1.2.1 (MingW32) - WinPT 0.5.13

iD8DBQE/O1yZHxjOrs1gxBcRAn5TAJ9lBL4op6txrM17m1SF1pIIjptTTgCcCt4n
P0fRecfQHzFxhvASPKfTt1Q=
=Q9fl
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----




2. How to Link INET(6)NUM Objects to an IRT Object

2.1 Requirements

To link an inet(6)num object to an irt object you need:

  • the authorisation of the team the irt object belongs to
  • the authorisation of the maintainer of the inet(6)num object

Authorisation can be provided by a PGP signature or by submitting your agreed password. Both possibilities are represented by the "auth:" field in both the irt and the inet(6)num object.


2.2 Link a Single INET(6)NUM Object to an IRT Object

This is done by sending an email to auto-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net. You provide the inet(6)num object with the necessary changes. In most cases you will add a "mnt-irt:" attribute and a new "changed:" attribute.

 

Here is an example:

An inet(6)num object as you find it in the RIPE Database before the change:

inetnum:      193.174.13.0 - 193.174.13.255
netname:      DFNCERT-NET
descr:        DFN-CERT  Zentrum fuer sichere Netzdienste GmbH
country:      DE
admin-c:      KM4692-RIPE
tech-c:       KM4692-RIPE
status:       ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:       DFN-LIR-MNT
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20010104
source:       RIPE

And this is the same object linked to an irt object:

inetnum:      193.174.13.0 - 193.174.13.255
netname:      DFNCERT-NET
descr:        DFN-CERT  Zentrum fuer sichere Netzdienste GmbH
country:      DE
admin-c:      KM4692-RIPE
tech-c:       KM4692-RIPE
status:       ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:       DFN-LIR-MNT
mnt-irt:      IRT-DFN-CERT
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20010104
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20030930
source:       RIPE

Now both the team and the maintainer of the inet(6)num object have to authorise the link request.

2.2.1 If Both Parties Use (different) PGP Keys for Authorisation

Both need to sign the request -mail. It does not matter in which order this signing occurs as long as both parties sign the request.

2.2.2 If Only One Party Uses a Password for Authorisation

In this case, whoever is using PGP should initially sign the request and send it to the other. They forward it to the RIPE NCC, together with their password. This maintains password confidentiality. It is strongly recommended that anyone using passwords, switch to PGP authentication. It is a more secure way to handle requests made to the RIPE NCC.

2.2.3 If Both Parties Use Password Authorisation

In this case, at least one, if not both parties should consider switching to PGP authentication.

2.2.4 If the IRT Object and INET(6)NUM Object are Maintained by the Same Maintainer

In this case, the process is straightforward.


2.3 Step-by-Step Guide

How to link a single inet(6)num object to a single irt object.

Extract the inet(6)num object from the RIPE Database:

whois -h whois.ripe.net -r <ipadress> > inetnum.txt

Alternatively you can search for any other entry in that object with -i, for example for the "mntner:" attribute

whois -h   whois.ripe.net -i mnt-by <mntner-name> > inetnum.txt

Here is an example:

marco@eumel> whois -h whois.ripe.net -r 193.174.13.99 > inetnum.txt
marco@eumel> cat inetnum.txt
inetnum:      193.174.13.0 - 193.174.13.255
netname:      DFNCERT-NET
descr:        DFN-CERT  Zentrum fuer sichere Netzdienste GmbH
country:      DE
admin-c:      KM4692-RIPE
tech-c:       KM4692-RIPE
status:       ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:       DFN-LIR-MNT
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20010104
source:       RIPE

Add a mnt-irt and a changed entry. If you have only inet(6)num to change, you can do this by hand using a standard text editor.

 

Here is an example:

marco@eumel> cat inetnum-irt.txt
inetnum:      193.174.13.0 - 193.174.13.255
netname:      DFNCERT-NET
descr:        DFN-CERT  Zentrum fuer sichere Netzdienste GmbH
country:      DE
admin-c:      KM4692-RIPE
tech-c:       KM4692-RIPE
status:       ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:       DFN-LIR-MNT
mnt-irt:      IRT-DFN-CERT
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20010104
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20030930
source:       RIPE

Sign the new text file, making sure that the "auth:" section of your irt object contains your PGP key. You can find out the correct key by using:

whois -h whois.ripe.net <irt-object name> | grep auth

Here is an example:

marco@eumel> whois -h whois.ripe.net irt-dfn-cert|grep auth
auth:         PGPKEY-6DFC4771
marco@eumel> gpg --clearsign -a -u 0x*234567 inetnum.txt
marco@eumel> cat inetnum.txt.asc
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----

inetnum:      193.174.13.0 - 193.174.13.255
netname:      DFNCERT-NET
descr:        DFN-CERT  Zentrum fuer sichere Netzdienste GmbH
country:      DE
admin-c:      KM4692-RIPE
tech-c:       KM4692-RIPE
status:       ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:       DFN-LIR-MNT
mnt-irt:      IRT-DFN-CERT
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20010104
changed:      poldi _at_ dfn _dot_ de 20030930
source:       RIPE
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: GnuPG v1.2.2 (SunOS)

iQEVAwUBP4VPg1FwV5Zt/EdxAQFk+Af/dUMEyjeQATGZ+8LVerSIyWHFmntjxh6Z
hQE3jP5dbtklCaRiCpdgRKw0sBiNG6fPyhmno4kcFYInKYxukhkLH+5HRXzQxk5R
Ay/oW4fn7K8hl1SgZn5cbN61UcMRDgDV88SeWOnCtc/CQ3bqv6N+l9TbTbzFS6kF
3e4a9G3G8tEKjilCWvDYgEhnYAlEPZr0+jvxFaEEN/4UuX2q0npE0269x2sybQlD
hfPQ++RtQ5vstablHW9/6m4r+bqlgfcAirVucmHaw/mgd4yK6CLrQEh9MRXcVest
0LVwuHI/HQGZ4bwbwUB+pnlMvU/W+wiD7ct3rwoqP2xKI8BUzPkjDg==
=7JK5
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

Send the new file to the maintainer of the inet(6)num object. If you do not know the maintainer, you can find out the person behind the mntner object by using the RIPE Database:

whois -h whois.ripe.net -r <ipadress>|grep mnt-by
whois -h whois.ripe.net <mntner name>|grep e-mail

Here is an example:

marco@eumel> whois -h whois.ripe.net -r 193.174.13.99|grep mnt-by
mnt-by:       DFN-LIR-MNT
marco@eumel> whois -h whois.ripe.net DFN-LIR-MNT|grep e-mail
e-mail:       hostmaster _at_ dfn _dot_ de

Let the other maintainer also authenticate the request by either signing the file (inetnum.txt.asc) with the PGP key referenced in his mntner object. An alternative would be to send the file, along with his maintainer password to the RIPE NCC.

Send this authenticated request to auto-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net

Both the maintainer of the inet(6)num object and the team who owns the irt object will receive a change notification by e-mail, when the request has been completed. If there is an error, both will receive a notification.


2.4 Link More Than One INET(6)NUM object to an IRT Object

2.4.1 All INET(6)NUM Objects Have the Same Maintainer Object

You should collect all the inet(6)num objects into one list. Make the appropriate changes and send the change request in one email to auto-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net.

2.4.2 Some INET(6)NUM Objects Have Different Maintainer Objects

You need authorisation from each party involved. You should collect the inet(6)num objects maintained by different maintainers into separate lists. Authorise these separately and then send each in a separate email to auto-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net.


2.5 Step-by-Step Guide

How to link multiple inet(6)num objects with the same maintainer to one single irt object.

Extract all the inet(6)num objects belonging to the mntner object from the RIPE Database:

whois -h
  whois.ripe.net -r -i mnt-by <maintainer name> > inetnums.txt

You will see a list of objects, separated by an empty line.

 

  • Here is an example:
    marco@eumel> whois -h whois.ripe.net -r -i mnt-by DFN-LIR-MNT > inetnums.txt
    
    

Add a "mnt-irt:" attribute and a "changed:" entry to every object in the list. You can do that manually or by using a script which you can find at:

http://www.dfn-cert.de/team/klever/changeripe.pl

Sign the new textfile with the PGP key from the "auth:" section of your irt object. You can find the correct key by issuing the following command:

whois -h whois.ripe.net <irt-object name> | grep auth

  • Here is an example:
    marco@eumel> whois -h whois.ripe.net irt-dfn-cert|grep auth
    auth:         PGPKEY-6DFC4771
    marco@eumel> gpg --clearsign -a -u 0x6DFC4771 inetnums.txt
    
    

Send that file to the other maintainer. He should authenticate the request by either signing the file (inetnum.txt.asc) with the PGP key referenced in his mntner object or send the file, along with his RIPE maintainer password to the RIPE NCC. The address to use is auto-dbm _at_ ripe _dot_ net.

Both the maintainer of the inet(6)num object and the team who owns the irt object will receive a change notification by email, when the request has been completed. If there is an error, both will receive a notification.


This document was first published on the TERENA website. The author of the original document was: Marco Thorbrügge, DFN-CERT / thorbruegge _at_ cert.dfn _dot_ de